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Sources of Drinking Water

Deep groundwater

The water emerging from some deep groundwaters may have fallen as rain many decades or even hundreds of years ago. Soil and rock layers naturally filter the groundwater to a high degree of clarity before it is pumped to the treatment plant. Such water may emerge as springs, artesian springs, or may be extracted from boreholes or wells. Deep groundwater is generally of very high bacteriological quality (i.e., a low concentration of pathogenic bacteria such as Campylobacter, Giardia or Cryptosporidium) but may be rich in dissolved solids, especially carbonates and sulphates of calcium and magnesium. Depending on the strata through which the water has flowed, other ions may also be present including chloride, and bi-carbonate. There may be a requirement to reduce the iron or manganese content of this water to make it pleasant for drinking, cooking, and laundry use. Disinfection is also required. Where groundwater recharge is practised, it is equivalent to lowland surface waters for treatment purposes.

Shallow groundwaters

Water emerging from shallow groundwaters is usually abstracted from wells or boreholes. The bacteriological quality can be variable depending on the nature of the catchment. A variety of soluble materials may be present including potentially toxic metals such as zinc and copper. In parts of Bangladesh, many shallow groundwater sources are contaminated with unacceptably high levels of arsenic.

Upland lakes and reservoirs

Typically located in the headwaters of river systems, upland reservoirs are usually sited above any human habitation and may be surrounded by a protective zone to restrict the opportunities for contamination. Bacteria and pathogen levels are usually low, but some bacteria, protozoa or algae will be present. Where uplands are forested or peaty, humic acids can colour the water. Many upland sources have low pH which require adjustment.

Rivers, canals and low land reservoirs

Low land surface waters will have a significant bacterial load and may also contain algae, suspended solids and a variety of dissolved constituents.

Information source: Wikipedia

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House Water Filters, Water Filters For Home, Pure Water, Clean Drinking Water, Water Filtration Systems