Bottled Water Sources
Different countries require different formal labels for bottled water. In the
United States, specific definitions and meanings ("standards of identity") apply
to the most common types of bottled water. Bottled water manufacturers must
ensure that their products meet the FDA established standard of identity for
bottled water products. A bottled water product bearing a particular statement
of identity (e.g., mineral water) must meet the requirements of the standard of
identity in order to avoid being misbranded. For example, under the standard of
identity regulations bottled water may only be labeled "mineral water" in the
United States if it:
(1) contains not less than 250 ppm total dissolved solids;
(2) comes from a source tapped at one or more bore holes or springs;
originates from a hydrogeologically protected source; and
(4) contains no added
There are similar definitions for bottled water, drinking water,
artesian water, ground water, distilled water, deionized water, reverse osmosis
water, purified water, sparkling bottled water, spring water, sterile water and
well water. A bottled water product must bear the appropriate name as reflected
in the applicable standard of identity definition or it is misbranded.
U.S. FDA "Standards of Identity" for Bottled Water The FDA has established
"Standards of Identity" for bottled water products sold in the U.S. Note that
other countries have different definitions and standards; some countries have no
consistent labeling requirements. Some of the more common U.S. types of bottled
water are listed below:
This is water that originates from a confined aquifer that
has been tapped and in which the water level stands at some height above the top
of the aquifer.
This type of water contains fluoride added within the
limitations established in the FDA Code of Federal Regulations. This category
includes water classified as "For Infants" or "Nursery."
This type of water is from an underground source that is under
a pressure equal to or greater than atmospheric pressure.
Mineral water contains at least 250 parts per million total
dissolved solids (TDS). It comes from a source tapped at one or more bore holes
or spring, and originates from a geologically and physically protected
underground water source. No minerals may be added to this water.
This type of water has been produced by distillation,
deionization, reverse osmosis, or other suitable processes. Purified water may
also be referred to as "demineralized water." It meets the definition of
"purified water" in the United States Pharmacopoeia.
Sparkling water contains the same amount of carbon dioxide
that it had at emergence from the source. The carbon dioxide may be removed and
replenished after treatment.
This type of water comes from an underground formation from
which water flows naturally to the Earth's surface.
This type of water meets the requirements under "sterility
tests" in the United States Pharmacopoeia.
Well water is taken from a hole tapping, etc. This hole may be
bored, drilled, or otherwise constructed in the ground.
The United States is the largest market for bottled water, at 26 billion
litres in 2004. On average, this is one 8-ounce glass per person per day. Italy
has the highest average consumption per person, at two 8-ounce glasses per
person per day.
Here is data for global markets in 2004, in billions of litres consumed.
- USA 25.8
- Mexico 17.7
- China 11.9
- Brazil 11.6
- Italy 10.7
- Germany 10.3
- France 8.5
- Indonesia 7.4
- Spain 5.5
- India 5.1
- All others 39.9
- Total 154.3
Source: Beverage Marketing Corporation, cited in John G. Rodwan, Jr.,
"Bottled Water 2004: U.S. and International Statistics and Developments,"
Bottled Water Reporter, April/May 2005.
Per person data is shown below, in average number of litres consumed per
person per year.
- Italy 183.6
- Mexico 168.5
- United Arab Emirates 163.5
- Belgium 148.0
- France 141.6
- Spain 136.7
- Germany 124.9
- Lebanon 101.4
- Switzerland 99.6
- Cyprus 92.0
- United States 90.5
- Saudi Arabia 87.8
- Czech Republic 87.1
- Austria 82.1
- Portugal 80.3
- Global Average 24.2
U.S. BOTTLED WATER MARKET, producer revenues, 2000 – 2005(P)
Year - Millions of US dollars
- 2000 $6,113.0
- 2001 $6,880.6
- 2002 $7,901.4
- 2003 $8,526.4
- 2004 $9,169.4
- 2005(P) $9,803.0
Filters - Article Index